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Ketu - Moon, on southerly course from North to South, again crosses the ecliptic. This point is known as Ketu or Dragon’s tail. This is the descending node of Moon.
These two points are exactly opposite 1800. There is no physical existence, hence are known as shadowy planets (Chhaya Grahas).

Eclipses - An eclipse occurs when a heavenly body moves through the shadow of another heavenly body. This may be partial or full. In the Solar system, Sun is the only illuminated heavenly body and is actually a star. All planets revolve around Sun under the gravitational force. The Moon moves around Earth and along with the Earth, it moves around the Sun.

Lunar Eclipse - When the Moon passes through the Earth’s shadow, Lunar Eclipse will takes place. It occurs only on full Moon day when Sun, Earth and Moon are in a straight line. Due to the inclination of Moon’s orbit at 50 to the Ecliptic, Lunar Eclipse will not occur every month. It occurs only near the ascending or descending nodes of Moon. The Earth’s shadow has two components, the darker central component is Umbra and lighter component is Penumbra. During the Lunar Eclipse, Moon passes first through Penumbra. During this Penumbra stage, the light of the full Moon’s disc is slightly reduced. When the Moon contacts dark umbra, the Lunar Eclipse takes place. During this stage Moon is completely obstructed by the shadow of the Earth. This called Total Lunar Eclipse. Its duration is about 1.47 hrs.

The Lunar Eclipse is of two types. Where full disc of Moon is completely obstructed by Umbra is called Total Lunar Eclipse. The second one is Partial Lunar Eclipse, which takes place at the time, a part of Moon disc is obstructed by Umbra. The Lunar Eclipse is explained at the figure 6.4.

Solar Eclipse -
Solar eclipse occurs when the Moon’s shadow falls on the Earth. Here Sun, Moon and Earth should be in a straight line. The Solar Eclipse can happen only on new Moon days, but not on every new Moon day due to the inclination of the Moon’s orbit at 5°. This happens in and around the nodes. It means the three heavenly bodies (Sun, Moon and Earth) have to be on straight line, on a new moon day and near to the nodes of Moon. This eclipse is of three types.

  1. Total Solar Eclipse- When the moon is nearer to the Earth in its orbit, the disc of Moon is bigger than the Sun’s disc and it completely covers the Sun’s disc, causing a total Solar Eclipse. Its periodicity is about 7.30 minutes.
  2. Partial Solar Eclipse- A part of Sun’s disc is only covered by Moon shadow causes a partial solar eclipse.
  3. Annular Solar Eclipse- When Moon is at farthest distance from the Earth in its orbit, the size of the Moon disc is slightly smaller than the Sun’s disc. During this point, the observer sees a dark lunar disk surrounded by brilliant ring of a Sun, known as Annular Solar Eclipse. During the Eclipse time, the Sunlight is cutoff to reach the Earth.
Karma Siddhanta (Concept of Karma theory)
The world’s greatest treatise Mahabharata contains the basics of Karma theory. Lord Krishna explained vividly to Arjuna in the form of Geeta. The Bhagavat Geeta in Mahabharat has its commentaries and sub-commentaries by various intellectuals. The translations of Geeta in English may not reveal the inner purport of the message given by the Lord. However, one can understand its pristine glory in Sanskrit. The messages of Geeta are available today on physical (sthoola), mental, spiritual and philosophical planes. On spiritual level, the theory of Karma has the following assumptions:

1  Reincarnation principle i.e. cycle of Birth—Death—Rebirth
2. Human bondage with reincarnation i.e. Runanubandham
3. Actions - Reactions of Runanubandham and planetary influences.

The greatest Physics Scientist, Sir Isaac Newton has propounded the laws of motion, which includes for every action there is a reaction. This is simply on physical level which means that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This is extended on metaphysical plane, meaning that for every action of human being; there will be corresponding reaction either in the present birth or in the future birth. Precisely, all the karmas have to be experienced by the individual himself/ herself and until and unless the complete exhaustion of all assets and liabilities of one’s karmas, no one can reach the ultimate goal of salvation or moksha. This is the final goal of every individual who understands the basic philosophy of Karma Siddhanth.


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